Learning Enriched Features for Fast Image Restoration and Enhancement

Since convolutional neural networks (CNNs) perform well at learning generalizable image priors from large-scale data, these models have been extensively applied to image restoration and related tasks. Recently, another class of neural architectures, Transformers, have shown significant performance gains on natural language and high-level vision tasks. While the Transformer model mitigates the shortcomings of CNNs (i.e., limited receptive field and inadaptability to input content), its computational complexity grows quadratically with the spatial resolution, therefore making it infeasible to apply to most image restoration tasks involving high-resolution images. In this work, we propose an efficient Transformer model by making several key designs in the building blocks (multi-head attention and feed-forward network) such that it can capture long-range pixel interactions, while still remaining applicable to large images. Our model, named Restoration Transformer (Restormer), achieves state-of-the-art results on several image restoration tasks, including image deraining, single-image motion deblurring, defocus deblurring (single-image and dual-pixel data), and image denoising (Gaussian grayscale/color denoising, and real image denoising).

Deeply Supervised Discriminative Learning for Adversarial Defense

Deep neural networks can easily be fooled by an adversary using minuscule perturbations to input images. The existing defense techniques suffer greatly under white-box attack settings, where an adversary has full knowledge about the network and can iterate several times to find strong perturbations. We observe that the main reason for the existence of such vulnerabilities is the close proximity of different class samples in the learned feature space of deep models. This allows the model decisions to be totally changed by adding an imperceptible perturbation in the inputs. To counter this, we propose to class-wise disentangle the intermediate feature representations of deep networks specifically forcing the features for each class to lie inside a convex polytope that is maximally separated from the polytopes of other classes. In this manner, the network is forced to learn distinct and distant decision regions for each class. We observe that this simple constraint on the features greatly enhances the robustness of learned models, even against the strongest white-box attacks, without degrading the classification performance on clean images. We report extensive evaluations in both black-box and white-box attack scenarios and show significant gains in comparison to state-of-the-art defenses.

Learned 3D Shape Representations Using Fused Geometrically Augmented Images: Application to Facial Expression and Action Unit Detection

Regularization of deep neural networks with spectral dropout

Image super-resolution as a defense against adversarial attacks

Convolutional Neural Networks have achieved significant success across multiple computer vision tasks. However, they are vulnerable to carefully crafted, human-imperceptible adversarial noise patterns which constrain their deployment in critical security-sensitive systems. This paper proposes a computationally efficient image enhancement approach that provides a strong defense mechanism to effectively mitigate the effect of such adversarial perturbations. We show that deep image restoration networks learn mapping functions that can bring off-the-manifold adversarial samples onto the natural image manifold, thus restoring classification towards correct classes. A distinguishing feature of our approach is that, in addition to providing robustness against attacks, it simultaneously enhances image quality and retains models performance on clean images. Furthermore, the proposed method does not modify the classifier or requires a separate mechanism to detect adversarial images. The effectiveness of the scheme has been demonstrated through extensive experiments, where it has proven a strong defense in gray-box settings. The proposed scheme is simple and has the following advantages: (1) it does not require any model training or parameter optimization, (2) it complements other existing defense mechanisms, (3) it is agnostic to the attacked model and attack type and (4) it provides superior performance across all popular attack algorithms.

Cost-sensitive learning of deep feature representations from imbalanced data

Class imbalance is a common problem in the case of real-world object detection and classification tasks. Data of some classes is abundant making them an over-represented majority, and data of other classes is scarce, making them an under-represented minority. This imbalance makes it challenging for a classifier to appropriately learn the discriminating boundaries of the majority and minority classes. In this work, we propose a cost sensitive deep neural network which can automatically learn robust feature representations for both the majority and minority classes. During training, our learning procedure jointly optimizes the class dependent costs and the neural network parameters. The proposed approach is applicable to both binary and multi-class problems without any modification. Moreover, as opposed to data level approaches, we do not alter the original data distribution which results in a lower computational cost during the training process. We report the results of our experiments on six major image classification datasets and show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the baseline algorithms. Comparisons with popular data sampling techniques and cost sensitive classifiers demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed method.

Empowering simple binary classifiers for image set based face recognition

Face recognition from image sets has numerous real-life applications including recognition from security and surveillance systems, multi-view camera networks and personal albums. An image set is an unordered collection of images (e.g., video frames, images acquired over long term observations and personal albums) which exhibits a wide range of appearance variations. The main focus of the previously developed methods has therefore been to find a suitable representation to optimally model these variations. This paper argues that such a representation could not necessarily encode all of the information contained in the set. The paper, therefore, suggests a different approach which does not resort to a single representation of an image set. Instead, the images of the set are retained in their original form and an efficient classification strategy is developed which extends well-known simple binary classifiers for the task of multi-class image set classification. Unlike existing binary to multi-class extension strategies, which require multiple binary classifiers to be trained over a large number of images, the proposed approach is efficient since it trains only few binary classifiers on very few images. Extensive experiments and comparisons with existing methods show that the proposed approach achieves state of the art performance for image set classification based face and object recognition on a number of challenging datasets.

A spatial layout and scale invariant feature representation for indoor scene classification

Unlike standard object classification, where the image to be classified contains one or multiple instances of the same object, indoor scene classification is quite different since the image consists of multiple distinct objects. Furthermore, these objects can be of varying sizes and are present across numerous spatial locations in different layouts. For automatic indoor scene categorization, large-scale spatial layout deformations and scale variations are therefore two major challenges and the design of rich feature descriptors which are robust to these challenges is still an open problem. This paper introduces a new learnable feature descriptor called “spatial layout and scale invariant convolutional activations” to deal with these challenges. For this purpose, a new convolutional neural network architecture is designed which incorporates a novel “spatially unstructured” layer to introduce robustness against spatial layout deformations. To achieve scale invariance, we present a pyramidal image representation. For feasible training of the proposed network for images of indoor scenes, this paper proposes a methodology, which efficiently adapts a trained network model (on a large-scale data) for our task with only a limited amount of available training data. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated through extensive experiments on a number of data sets, including MIT-67, Scene-15, Sports-8, Graz-02, and NYU data sets.

A discriminative representation of convolutional features for indoor scene recognition

Indoor scene recognition is a multi-faceted and challenging problem due to the diverse intra-class variations and the confusing inter-class similarities that characterize such scenes. This paper presents a novel approach that exploits rich mid-level convolutional features to categorize indoor scenes. Traditional convolutional features retain the global spatial structure, which is a desirable property for general object recognition. We, however, argue that the structure-preserving property of the convolutional neural network activations is not of substantial help in the presence of large variations in scene layouts, e.g., in indoor scenes. We propose to transform the structured convolutional activations to another highly discriminative feature space. The representation in the transformed space not only incorporates the discriminative aspects of the target data set but also encodes the features in terms of the general object categories that are present in indoor scenes. To this end, we introduce a new large-scale data set of 1300 object categories that are commonly present in indoor scenes. Our proposed approach achieves a significant performance boost over the previous state-of-the-art approaches on five major scene classification data sets.

A two-phase weighted collaborative representation for 3D partial face recognition with single sample